Atmospheric Radiation

Yu.M Timofeyev and E.M. Shulgina

St. Petersburg State University, Ulyanovskaya ul. 1, Petrodvorets, 198904 Russia

e-mail: tim@troll.phys.spbu.ru

on the basis of materials presented by L.P. Bass (Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics RAS (IAM RAS)); V.P. Budak (Moscow Power-Engineering Institute (MPEI)); A.A. Cheremisin (Siberian Federal University (SFU)); N.E. Chubarova, S.A. Terpygova (Lomonosov Moscow State University (MSU)); G.I. Gorchakov, I.A. Gorchkova, S.A. Sitnov and M.A. Sviridenkov (Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP RAS)); I.L Karol (Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory, MGO); E.N. Kadygrov (Central Aerological Observatory (CAO)), A.F. Neryshev (Scientific and Production Association "Typhoon" (Typhoon); V.I. Perevalov, Yu.N. Ponomarev, S.M. Sakerin, T.K. Sklyadneva and T.B. Zhuravleva (Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics SB RAS (IAO SB RAS)); V.F. Radionov (Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI); A.N. Rublev (Russian Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Kurchatov Institute)); A.B. Uspensky (Scientific Research Center for Space Hydrometeorology Planeta (Planeta)).

During 2011-2014 the Russian Radiation Commission in cooperation with interested departments and institutions hold two International Symposiums of Radiation and Dynamics (ISARD-2011, ISARD-2013). At these conferences most actual problems of atmospheric physics (radiation transfer and atmospheric optics, greenhouse gases, clouds and aerosols, climate changes, remote measurement methods, new observation data) were discussed. In this review, 6 directions of studies covering the complete spectrum of investigations in atmospheric radiation are given.

1. Radiation Transfer

Numerous investigations in this line are devoted to the theoretical study of the radiative transfer in different mediums and for different measurement geometries and the development of methods and algorithms for solving the radiation transfer equation as applied to different problem of atmospheric optics.

Different methods of radiation transfer theory have been intensely developed by the MPEI team. The substantiation of the radiative transfer equation (RTE) has been carried out from the standpoint of statistical optics [Budak and Veklenko, 2011]. The essential difference of the method using in this article is the application of the L.V. Keldysh matrix Green's functions. Traditionally, the approach used here is the Dyson and Bethe-Salpeter equations. Bethe-Salpeter equation is quadratic, while the matrix Green's function lead to a system of linear equations of the Dyson type. That allows getting much more general results in the derivation of kinetic equations in the approximation of geometrical optics. A solution of the discrete RTE for the planar stratified slab with arbitrary conditions at the boundary is found in the analytical matrix form [Budak et al., 2011]. Numerical solution of the RTE is possible only based on its sampling that demands the replacement of the scattering integral by the finite sum. Since the physical basis of the transfer theory is the geometrical optics approximation, the solution always contains angular singularities. Therefore, to sample RTE it is necessary to eliminate the anisotropic part of the solution, including all of its singularities, even approximately, but analytically, and to formulate the equation for the regular part solution. The anisotropic part elimination in the RTE solution in other geometries and numerical determination of its regular part is considered in papers [Ilyushin and Budak, 2011a, 2011b, 2011c; Budak and Ilyushin, 2011]. The generalization of the small-angle modification of the spherical harmonics method (MSH) is proposed for the refinement of the scattered photon path dispersion. MSH is the most general form of the small-angle approximation, which permits to eliminate the solution anisotropic part and to formulate the equation for the regular part, which solution is possible numerically [Budak and Ilyushin, 2011]. Comparison of different algorithms for solving the RTE for a slab by the efficiency and the estimation of the hardware and software impact has been performed. It is shown that it is based on a unique analytic solution of the discrete RTE. For sampling RTE, the scattering integral should be represented by a finite sum, which is possible only after the angular singularity elimination in the solution. Exist algorithms differ in the way of the solution anisotropic part elimination. It is shown that the most effective method of such elimination is MSH. Because the solution is reduced to a matrix expression, the efficiency of the algorithm is determined by the effectiveness of matrix operations implementation [Budak et al., 2012]. The fact that the basis of all algorithms for solving problems for the slab is one analytical solution of the discrete RTE imposes significant limitations: the speed and accuracy of the solution are inversely related. The calculation difficulties are determined by the dimension of the solution matrix, which in turn depend on the accuracy of the solution regular part representation. It is shown that the number of basis functions in the solution regular part representation is determined by the analog of the Kotelnikov-Shannon theorem: the sampling step should correspond to the smallest angular details of the solutions. This defines a contradiction: the requirements for algorithms of the inverse solution define the direct problem. Today we need an algorithm solving the RTE with a precision of a uniform metric better than 1%, and the computation time is not more than 1 second for one wavelength. It is obvious that satisfy both conditions at once in the framework of the traditional RTE solution impossible. To overcome this problem it is proposed to use the synthetic iteration that was developed in neutron transport theory. It is shown that it can satisfy the requirements of the inverse solution [Budak and Shagalov, 2013; Budak et al., 2014]. An algorithm for the calculation of the light field in a scene of arbitrary geometry with the multiple reflections from the boundaries has been proposed. It is based on the double local estimation of the Monte Carlo method for the calculation of the decomposition of the desired angular radiance distribution system of spherical functions that eliminates the divergence of the double local estimation. The proposed solution of discrete RTE for a slab is tested for the extreme case of a semi-infinite medium with a single scattering albedo equal 1 by the comparison of other algorithms and in situ measurements. It is shown that, in this case, for an accurate determination of the eigenvalues of the system matrix should use its Jordan form [Sokoletsky et al., 2014]. The effect of coherent scattering impact on the formation of the light field in a turbid medium has been investigated. For this purpose, it was proposed the algorithm of the numerical solution of the Mie theory for a system of one, two and four particles. The calculation of multiple scatterings was based on the Monte Carlo method. It has been shown that coherent scattering does not affect the point spread function of the slab that defines the object visibility through the thickness of a turbid medium [Fokina et al., 2014].

A rigorous approach to the solution of Maxwell equations for a monochromatic field in a homogeneous uniaxial medium has been considered [Marakasov and Troitskii, 2012]. The approach is based on using the tensor Greens function. The general solution satisfying arbitrarily specified boundary conditions is presented. Various models of exponentially correlated random fields associated with Poisson point ensembles, as well as algorithms for simulating radiative transfer in stochastic media of that type, are considered [Mikhailov, 2012].

A number of papers have been devoted to techniques for calculating the radiative transfer in the context of atmospheric and underlying surface remote sensing. The light scattering in water-drop clouds for various distributions of droplet size has been studied. Polarization and angular distributions are simulated by Monte Carlo method for radiation reflected by cloud layers. Computational results make it possible to develop procedures for analyzing the microphysical structure of clouds [Prigarin et al., 2014]. The passive retrieval technique for investigation of the vertical structure of clouds and aerosols from satellites is discussed [Fomin and Falaleeva, 2014]. This technique uses a combination of cross-nadir polarimetry and high-resolution infrared (IR) spectroscopy. The real potential of this technique is demonstrated with the help of a set of numerical experiments, e.g. for the detection of cirrus clouds (Ci). In this regard, new vector versions for the longwave and shortwave in the FLBLM (Fast Line-by-Line Model) radiative transfer model are presented. These new versions are based on the Line-by-Line (LbL) and local estimation Monte Carlo (MC) methods and can calculate the Stokes parameters of the outgoing radiation in vertically inhomogeneous atmospheres with any spectral resolution. The influence of 3D effect on snow reflection function and albedo has been studied in the framework of the stochastic radiative transfer theory [Zhuravleva and Kokhanovsky, 2011]. In particular, the corresponding equations for the averaged intensity of reflected light are solved for the ensemble of realizations of the stochastic field, describing the distribution of 3D elements on the flat semi-infinite snow layer. It is found that the albedo of snow layer is reduced (in particular, in the infrared region), if 3D effects are taken into account. The sea and land surface models used in remote sensing have been developed [Zapevalov and Lebedev, 2014; Matelenok and Melentyev, 2014]. The method of integral distributions is developed for determining the atmospheric aerosol micro-structure from spectral measurements of the aerosol optical depth [Veretennikov and Menshchikova, 2013].

2. Atmospheric Molecular Spectroscopy

Main directions of investigations in the molecular spectroscopy of atmospheric gases are experimental studies of spectroscopic parameters, the development of methods for calculating the parameters of spectral lines, transmittance functions and the updating of spectroscopic databases.

At the IAO RAS, the analysis and theoretical modeling of experimental spectra of H2O, CO2, O3, O2, CH4, N2O, NO2, C2H2 molecules and their isotopic modifications in different spectral ranges and under different conditions are intensively carried on in cooperation with foreign scientists. The investigations are directed to studying the spectroscopic parameters of gases, speculiarities of the spectra obtained by different methods and intermolecular interactions. Results of such studies for atmospheric gases and water vapor are given, for example, in papers [Lyulin et al., 2011, 2013, 2014; Beguier et al., 2011; Liu et al., 2011; Mikhailenko et al., 2011; Lu et al., 2012; Jacquemart et al., 2012; Leshchishina et al., 2011a, 2011b, 2012, 2013; Lukashevskaya et al., 2013; Karlovets et al., 2013, 2014; Oudot et al., 2012; Régalia et al., 2014; Daumont et al., 2012]. Results of these studies contributed greatly to the development of databases and information systems by new and refined information [Rothman et al., 2013; Tashkun et al., 2011; Rey et al., 2014; Lavrentieva et al., 2014; Babikov et al., 2013]. In the frames of the Project IUPAC A database of water transitions from experiment and theory jointly with scientists of other countries, a critical expertise of the water vapor rotational-vibrational spectra and transitions has been performed [Tennyson et al., 2013, 2014a, 2014b].

A number of studies have been carried out in context of remote sensing the atmospheric methane and carbon dioxide. The main spectroscopic factors contributing to the uncertainty in calculations of atmospheric radiative transfer in methane strong absorption bands in near-IR range, which are used to retrieve the methane content in the atmosphere, have been studied. The uncertainties in the parameters of the absorption lines of atmospheric gases in modern databases, as well as the effect of the methane line mixing, are estimated. Methods for enhancing the accuracy of modeling the atmospheric transmittance are proposed. It is shown, that the different spectroscopic databases can give significantly different results for both forward simulations of the atmospheric transmittance and the inverse problem of retrieving the CH4 total content using spectra measured by ground-based FTIR spectrometer [Chesnokova et al., 2011; Chesnokova, 2013]. On the basis of laboratory measurements of methane absorption spectra, using acoustic and photometric spectrometers based on a tunable diode laser, parameters of overlapping absorption lines of R5 and R9 methane multiplets broadened by nitrogen and neon were defined at pressures of broadening gases of 0.005-0.5 atm. [Osipov et al., 2012; Kapitanov et al., 2012, 2013]. Analysis of laboratory data showed a significant deviation of the line shapes from the Voigt profile, which is typically used in atmospheric modeling. The use of contour Routine-Sobelman profile allowed with an error of less than 1% to describe the experimental spectra.

In paper [Chentsov et al., 2013] the influence of differences in the parameters of CO2 spectral lines in spectroscopic databases HITRAN-2008 and CDSD on the modeling of atmospheric transmittance has been studied, and it is shown that the difference in the transmissions can reach 10% or more in the strong CO2 absorption bands.

3. Radiative Climatology

The research work in the frames of this topic has been carried out in several directions: the monitoring of components of radiation budget (RB) and atmospheric constituents effecting the radiation; the study of RB climatic trends near a surface; the analysis of radiative effects caused by atmospheric gases.

Influence of variations of meteorological parameters and distinctions in models of the H2O continual absorption on calculations of solar and thermal radiation fluxes under conditions realized during various seasons in Western Siberia [Chesnokova et al., 2012, 2013; Zhuravleva et al., 2014] and the Lower Volga Region [Firsov et al., 2013, 2015] have been estimated. Based on calculations of total, direct and diffusion solar radiation fluxes in the 0.25 mm range under cloudless atmosphere for various models of the water vapor continual absorption and various total moisture contents characteristic for summer and winter conditions of Western Siberia, it is shown that the CAVIAR model of the continual absorption based on new experimental data provides the higher sensitivity of calculated solar radiation fluxes to the total moisture content in comparison with the MT_CKD model [Chesnokova et al., 2012, 2013]. For the Lower Volga Region the regression dependence of the CO2 radiation forcing on the total moisture content is calculated, and the CO2 radiative forcing is shown to strongly depend on the continuum magnitude. The atmospheric conditions are determined, under which the contribution of the H2O continuum due to the interaction of water vapor with air molecules to the downward radiative fluxes, is maximal [Firsov et al., 2015].

Team of the IAO SB RAS in 20112014 carries on the long-term monitoring of the total and UV radiation in Tomsk and the Tomsk region, and also in certain regions of Western Siberia. On the basis of TOR station (5628'N of 8503'E), systematic measurements of total solar radiation and the integrated intensity of UF-V radiation have been conducted since April, 1995, and October, 2002, respectively. Since 2004, IAO SB RAS in cooperation with National institute of Environmental Research (Japan) has carried out the monitoring of the total solar radiation and greenhouse and oxidizing components at the Western Siberian network. Spatial-temporal variability of the total solar radiation in West Siberia during 20042011 was jointly analyzed [Arshinov et al., 2013]. Radiation regime in Tomsk during 19952010 and the influence of a city on the incoming UV radiation from results of many-year monitoring near Tomsk-city were analyzed in papers [Belan et al., 2012, 2011]. In paper [Ivlev et al., 2013], dynamics of solar UV-B and UV-A radiations in Tomsk during ozone anomaly in spring, 2011 was analyzed and the variability of the UV radiation spectral characteristics depending on the total ozone content was estimated.

At MSU, the influence of different factors on different types on biologically active UV radiation has been estimated [Zhdanova and Chubarova, 2011], new methods were developed for estimating the UV radiation in winter [Zhdanova et al., 2013], the spatial distribution of UV radiation and UV resources over territory of Northern Eurasia and Russia under different conditions were obtained [Chubarova and Zhdanova, 2013]. According to the developed methods and long-term measurements, the UV resources in Moscow were estimated from 1999 till 2013 [Zhdanova, Chubarova, 2014].

Complex studies were fulfilled for estimating the changes in different meteorological and environmental characteristics including the radiative balance and solar radiation in different spectral intervals over 60 years in Moscow [Chubarova et al., 2014]. The resources of solar radiation with accounting the current climate change in the Moscow region are evaluated [Gorbarenko and Shilovtseva, 2013]. Analysis of trends in the long-term variability of total radiation (19552012) indicates an increase in solar power resources in Moscow and region in early of the XXI century. The coherence of total radiation change tendencies observable by the Meteorology Observatory MSU with global trend is shown in paper [Samukova et al., 2014]. A dramatic increase in the values of annual sums of radiation balance has been observed since 1994 [Gorbarenko and Abakumova, 2011]. The tendencies toward the increase in radiation balance, longwave balance, and atmospheric downward radiation have a diurnal course: the maximum variations are observed at nighttime in winter months [Gorbarenko, 2014].

4. Aerosol and Radiation Forcing

Extensive laboratory and ground-based measurements of aerosol parameters, the modeling, and the estimating of the aerosol impact on radiative characteristics of the atmosphere have been carried out at IAO SB RAS, SPbSU, IAP, MGO.

Laboratory studies of aerosol characteristics under the artificial moistening (from 1998) and optical and radiative smoke parameters have been conducted [Rakhimov et al., 2012, 2014] at the IAO SB RAS. Results of multi-year studies of the aerosol condensation activity in Tomsk are integrated [Panchenko et al., 2012a; Terpugova et al., 2012]. A new differential analyzer implementing a technique for studying the hygroscopic properties of filter-precipitated aerosol particles out-performing other similar models has been created [Mikhailov et al., 2011] at the SPbSU. A mass-based hygroscopicity parameter interaction model for efficient description of concentration-dependent water uptake by atmospheric aerosol particles with complex chemical composition is developed [Mikhailov et al., 2013]. Seasonal variations of the ionic composition and the organic and elementary carbon in aerosol probes of Siberian region from 2011 to 2013 and the analysis of aerosol pollution sources in this region have been analyzed. New information on hygroscopic characteristics of atmospheric particles with sizes of 10 nm10 mm is obtained for the moisture content of 299.6% RH [Sviridenkov et al., 2014].

In 20112013 the Planeta together with researchers from Kurchatov Institute, IAO SB RAS and MSU conducted a study of capabilities and limitations of the well-known AERONET network for estimations of optical and microphysical characteristics of coarse aerosol clouds. The quantitative estimates of coarse particle effect on the accuracy of aerosol parameter retrieval from ground-based measurements of spectral fluxes of direct and scattered solar radiation were obtained on the basis of mathematical modeling [Rublev et al., 2011]. The verification of the retrieval algorithm of the well-known AERONET global aerosol network based on special test models has shown the impossibility of using the aerosol parameters retrieved by the algorithm in calculations of integral solar fluxes while dust particles content in the atmosphere is more than two times higher than their content in widespread CONT model of continental aerosol. The same is fair for simulation of space spectroscopic IR measurements. The possibilities for increasing accuracy of the forecast of volcanic aerosol distribution, based on ground actinometrical measurements data, were considered in [Rublev et al., 2013]. The numerical forecast concentrations of volcanic ash from Grimsvotn volcano in Iceland (May 2011) were adjusted to the results of aerosol optical thickness measurements at the site of the AERONET global network in Hamburg. Comparison of the corrected concentrations with those from the other AERONET sites demonstrated validity of the proposed approach. Actinometrical network of the Russian Meteorological Agency can be used to specify aerosol cloud distribution forecast over Russias territory. The aerosol properties of the atmosphere in Moscow were estimated using AERONET data [Chubarova et al., 2010] and collocated measurements in Moscow and Zvenigorod. It has been shown that aerosol pollution effects are not very large (about 0.02 in aerosol optical transmittance (AOT) at 500 nm) [Chubarova et al., 2011a]. Using these datasets the cooling effect of urban aerosol was also shown.

Permanent studies of aerosol optical and microphysical characteristics in different Earth regions are carried on. Methodical basis was developed; the apparatus complex was created and combined experiment on studying aerosol characteristics and estimating the input of atmospheric aerosol in the planet radiative balance was performed [Matvienko et al., 2014a, 2014b]. Regular expedition studies of aerosol characteristics have been conducted in marine and high-latitudinal Earth regions (on Arctic Ocean cost, Antarctic, archipelago Spitsbergen, Atlantics). Latitudinal dependence of aerosol characteristics and its inter-annual trend over Atlantic Ocean and seasonal and in inter-annual variability of parameters at Spitsbergen are determined [Pol'kin et al., 2013; Sakerin et al., 2012a]. Results of aerosol measurements conducted at Russian Antarctic Station Vostok and over Caspian Sea were analyzed [Pol'kin et al., 2012, 2014]. Variability of aerosol and optical parameters of the atmosphere in northern and southern polar regions after 2000 is estimated [Rusina et al., 2013]. Combined measurements of aerosol and soot concentrations and size distributions were performed in the near-ground atmospheric layer near Vladivistok and in the near-sea layer in the water area of Japanese sea [Pol'kin et al., 2011]. Speculiarities of spatial-temporal variability of aerosol microphysical characteristics of the atmosphere and the near-ground layers in the transitional zone continent-ocean were studied [Shmirko et al., 2014]. Aerosol characteristics were determined during different fire episodes [Trefilova et al., 2013].

Numerous studies were directed to studying the aerosol optical depth (AOD) in different regions. In 2014 the monograph generalizing results of combined aerosol studies in Asian Russia was published [Sakerin S.M. (ed.), 2012]. Regularities of AOD spatial-temporal variability in the Asian Russia atmosphere were studied in papers [Sakerin et al., 2011, 2012b, 2012c, 2014a; Kabanov et al., 2011, 2013, 2014a; Zayakhanov et al., 2012; Poddubnyi et al., 2013]. Similar studies were carried out also for marine and polar regions [Sakerin et al., 2014b, 2014c; Kabanov et al., 2014b] and in the frames of International Programs [Tomasi et al., 2012; Smirnov et al., 2011, 2012].

A number of investigations were devoted to studying thermal effects of smoke aerosol and the radiative forcing during various wildfires. The radiative properties of smoke aerosol in Moscow and Moscow region during extreme conditions of forest fires in 2010 have been studied [Chubarova et al., 2012; Gorchakova and Mokhov, 2012; Shukurov et al., 2014]. Approximation of the smoke aerosol forcing at the atmospheric bottom boundary has been developed [Rublev et al., 2011]. Using the microphysical modeling, the influence assessment of the coarse mode with particle radii greater than 15 mm on the dust aerosol optical properties is obtained. In addition, the comparative analysis has been performed for different fire episodes in Moscow (during 1972, 2002 and 2010 summer periods) and it is shown that the strongest radiative effects are observed in 2010 [Chubarova et al., 2011b]. In JuneAugust 2012, the team of the IAO SB RAS conducted the combined experiment for studying the dynamics of optics-microphysical characteristics of the submicronic aerosol in the near-ground air layer under the smoke haze from Siberian forest fires [Kozlov et al., 2014; Uzhegov et al., 2014; Popovicheva et al., 2014]. Differences in optical and microphysical characteristics of the near-ground aerosol under conditions of the haze smoke and non-smoked atmosphere were estimated.

Methods for the aerosol remote sensing and models for parameterizing the aerosol parameters have been constantly developed and improved. New method (SSMART) for retrieving the aerosol optical and microphysical characteristics is proposed and tested [Bedareva and Zhuravleva, 2011; Bedareva et al., 2013a]. The characteristics are retrieved from data of ground-based AOD spectral measurements and scattered radiation in the solar almucantar. Refined version of the method [Bedareva et al., 2014] has been tested under conditions of moderate and strong aerosol turbidity for Tomsk and Dakar [Bedareva and Zhuravleva, 2012; Bedareva et al., 2013b] and it is shown that retrieved aerosol characteristics fit to AERONET data within total errors. On the basis of data of long-term airborne sounding of vertical profiles of aerosol directed scattering coefficients, the disperse composition and also the maintenance of the absorbing particles, the generalized empirical model of aerosol optical characteristics in the lower 5-kilometer layer of the atmosphere of Western Siberia has been developed [Panchenko et al., 2012b]. The model allows retrieving aerosol optical characteristics in visible and near-IR spectral ranges. Spectral dependences of the single-scattering albedo at different altitudes are estimated [Panchenko et al., 2012c]. Two-parametric model has been developed for retrieving the aerosol extinction coefficients in visible and near-IR spectral ranges on a long near-ground path from data on the aerosol parameters in a local volume. Spectral dependence of the single-scattering albedo at the 0.453.9 mm wavelengths is estimated [Pkhalagov et al., 2013; Pkhalagov and Uzhegov, 2014].

Along with the works estimating the radiation forcing of aerosol and other anthropogenous factors, forming changes of the radiation regime, their impact on climate changes has been studied. The current state of studies on short-lived atmospheric constituents (greenhouse gases and aerosols), sources and destruction mechanisms, estimates of their content, atmospheric emissions, and climate impacts is reviewed [Karol et al., 2013]. Indices of factors forming multi-scale climate changes, rates of their changes and the input in rates of changing the climatic characteristics are discussed [Karol et al., 2011, 2012]. Several factors forming the Arctic climate have been considered. Model estimates of contribution of both sea surface temperature and sea ice extent changes during two periods 19801989 and 20022011 are shown. Also seasonal changes of meridional energy transport into the high northern latitudes (to north of 70oN) are discussed [Karol et al., 2014]. The impact of the size distribution and structure of stratospheric sulphate aerosol on its optical parameters and radiative forcing [Frolkis and Kokorin, 2014].

Studies of the photophoretic interaction of aerosol participles illuminated by sunlight in the Earths rarified atmosphere are carried on at the Siberian Federal University (SFU) and the IAO. A detailed theoretic investigation has been carried out for vacuum chamber conditions [Cheremisin and Kushnarenko, 2013] and for atmospheric conditions [Cheremisin and Kushnarenko, 2014]. Theoretical analysis of the photophoretic motion of soot particles in the field of solar radiation under the conditions of stationary atmosphere is performed [Beresnev et al., 2012]. The hypothesis of photophoretic force sustaining of aerosol layers in the middle atmosphere has been further developed [Cheremisin et al., 2011a]. Systematic lidar observations of aerosol layers in the upper stratosphere and the mesosphere at altitudes of 3550 and 6075 km over Kamchatka [Bychkov et al., 2011] can be explained by the occurrence of photophoretic force, resulting in the levitation of aerosol particles at specified altitudes. The transfer of volcanic origin aerosol [Cheremisin et al., 2011b] and polar stratospheric clouds over Tomsk [Cheremisin et al., 2012] is identified. The transfer of aerosol formed in the stratosphere after the falling of Chelyabinsk meteorite on the 15th of February 2013 is traced [Ivanov et al., 2014].

5. Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere

Ground-based studies of the amount of climate-active gases using IR-spectroscopy of direct solar radiation are carried on. Such studies, carried out at Department of Physics SPbSU, using ground-based measurements of IR direct solar spectra with high spectral resolution allowed to receive a new data on total contents of greenhouse, ozone-depleting and toxic gases (H2O, CH4, N2O, CO, CO2, C2H6, CFC-11, O3, HCl, HF, HNO3,ClONO2, NO2) at Peterhof (59.88 N, 29.83 E, 20 m asl). Many data were obtained for the first time in Russia. These researches have been directed to:

studying of temporary variations and long-term trends of climate-active atmospheric gases [Yagovkina et al., 2011; Virolainen et al., 2011; Makarova et al., 2011; Polyakov et al., 2011, 2013a, 2014a; Kshevetskaya et al., 2012; Ionov et al., 2013; Rakitin et al., 2013; Semakin et al., 2013; Timofeyev et al., 2013];

validation of satellite measurements of various devices [Polyakov et al., 2013b; Gavrilov et al., 2014a, 2014b; Gavrilov and Timofeev, 2014; Makarova et al., 2014a];

comparisons of ground-based measurements with results of numerical modeling [Makarova et al., 2014b; Virolainen et al., 2014a];

obtaining the new information on elements of vertical distribution of the ozone content [Virolainen et al., 2012, 2014b];

improvement of techniques for interpreting the remote measurements [Kostsov, 2012, 2013].

Comprehensive program of comparing the different methods for measuring the water vapor content started at SPbSU; the comparison of IR spectroscopic method with data of microwave and radiozonde measurements was performed [Semenov et al., 2014]. Studies of NO2 and 3 temporal variations from ground-based measurements of zenith scattered solar radiation in UV and visible spectral ranges are carried on, and the measurements are also used for the validation of different satellite measurements [Makarova et al., 2011b; Ionov and Poberovskii, 2012; Hendrick et al., 2011; Pastel et al., 2013, 2014; Virolainen et al., 2014c]. Measurements of aerosol optical and microphysical characteristics in the frames of AERONET network started. The analysis of the quality of the tropospheric temperature-humidity sounding using the RPG-HATPRO radiometer has shown that the radiometer gives a possibility to obtain real information for Saint-Petersburg up to the 34 km altitudes depending on season [Zaitsev et al., 2014].

At the IAP RAS, continuous combined trace gases measurements are carried on over Moscow, Zvenigorod Scientific Station and by a mobile laboratory (the TROICA experiments). Results of the carbon monoxide total content measurements by moderate resolution diffraction spectrometers over Moscow and Zvenigorod for 20052008 are compared with the same data sets for Moscow 19862005 and Beijing, 19922007 [Rakitin et al., 2011]. Results of the 19952008 observations of the concentrations of ozone and nitric oxides in the surface air over the Trans-Siberian Railway using a mobile laboratory are analyzed [Pankratova et al., 2011]. The air pollution in the central European part of Russia during the 2010 summer fires has been analyzed. Ground-based (IAP RAS, MSU, and Zvenigorod Scientific Station) and satellite (MOPITT, AIRS, of Terra and Aqua satellites) measurements of the total content and concentration of carbon monoxide (CO), as well as MODIS data on the spatial and temporal distribution of forest and peat fires obtained from Terra and Aqua satellites, are presented [Fokeeva et al., 2011]. Increase in concentrations of chemically-active (NO, NO2, CO, O3, SO2) and greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, and nonmethane hydrocarbons over Moscow is estimated during the 2010 Fires [Elansky et al., 2011]. The climatic trends and basic features of seasonal variations in and anomalies of the concentration of methane in the atmospheric surface layer have been considered on the basis of the current notion of the processes that form the global field of methane in the Earths atmosphere. Measurement data on the surface concentration of methane, which were obtained in Moscow and at a number of observation stations in Europe and Siberia in the fallwinter period of the first decade of the 21st century, are analyzed [Ginzburg et al., 2011].

The Ural Atmospheric Fourier Station (UAFS) based on a Bruker IFS-125M Fourier spectrometer and intended for trace gas monitoring in the background atmosphere is now in operation. First results of the retrieval of the heavy water isotopes in the Ural atmosphere are given [Gribanov et al., 2011].

Since 2011 in IAM RAS, algorithms and codes for the hyper-spectral remote sensing of characteristics of the atmosphere, clouds and underlying surface are developed [Bass et al., 2014]. At present the testing of the software package are carried out using the processing of real spectra of atmospheric sounding.

In 20112014 the CAO team developed, made and tested a prototype of a ground-based microwave multichannel complex for monitoring the atmospheric thermodynamic parameters [Kadygrov et al., 2013a]. The complex provides continuous measurements of temperature profiles up to the 10 km altitude (under cloudless atmosphere) and to 24 km (under cloudiness) and also the total vapor and cloud liquid water content. The complex also provides measurements of temperature profiles in the atmospheric boundary layer practically in any weather conditions. Unique data on phase moisture transitions in clouds, in particular on the cloud liquid water content of thin clouds and a haze, are obtained using the complex [Kadygrov et al., 2014]. Jointly with specialists of Hydrometeorological Center, IAP RAS, MSU and "Mosecomonitoring", studies of vertical structure of the heat island over Moscow using the microwave temperature profilemer of MTR-5 established in the megalopolis and in the suburbs have continued [Kuznetsova et al., 2012]. The analysis of unique data on the heat island and its vertical distribution over Moscow was carried out during the powerful blocking anti-cyclone in the summer of 2010 [Gorchakov et al., 2014a]. The experiment on studying the influence of weather conditions and rainfall on data of the MTR-5 microwave profilemer was carried out in cooperation with the Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center (Norway), the Finnish Meteorological Institute (Finland), IPA RAS and Institute of Applied Physics RAS in the valley Bergen (Norway) [Ezau et al., 2013]. Data on the vertical structure variability of the atmospheric boundary layer during solar eclipses are generalized and published [Kadygrov et al., 2013b]. At present the new generation of Doppler meteorological radars (DMRL-S) is put into operation, and on their basis the observation network covering practically all territory of the Russian Federation is created [Zhukov and Shchukin, 2014]. With the CAO participation the airborne meteolaboratory of the new generation YaK-42D "Roshydromet" for the environment studies has been created. It is equipped with the most modern contact and remote devices for atmospheric studies and already made a number of research flights to the Arctic regions of the Russian Federation.

6. Interpretation of Satellite Measurements

Studies devoted to the development of methods for determining information products on parameters of the atmosphere and underlying surface on the basis of the analysis of satellite data, and also to problems of the calibration and validation of satellite data and information products are the main part of all studies in this field.

Studies on developing techniques for interpreting and using the data from Russian Polar-orbiting and Geostationary Meteorological Satellites Meteor-M and Electro-L and also on creating the operative procedures for the processing of satellite measurements and the retrieval of information products are carried on at SRB "Planeta". A new method has been developed and tested for the land air temperature retrieval of regional and global covering from microwave imager/sounder MTVZA/Meteor-M N. 1 [Kramchaninova and Uspensky, 2012]. Validation issues of satellite based temperature-humidity profile retrieval is considered. The comparative characteristics of advanced satellite-based microwave radiometers (SSMIS, ATMS, AMSU, AMSR2, MTVZA) intended to obtain information about the parameters of the atmosphere and the underlying surface are presented. Methodical aspects of determining the atmospheric water vapor, cloud liquid, atmospheric temperature-humidity profiles using ground-based microwave radiometers are considered. The results of the comparison of satellite-based products with upper-air and ground-based microwave radiometric soundings of the atmosphere are reviewed [Karavaev et al, 2014]. The description of the onboard measuring complex, the structure of output products and a ground-based reception complex for processing and distributing the "Meteor-M" N 2 data is given in paper [Asmus et al., 2014]. Prospects of receiving products of the remote atmospheric sensing from data of hyper-spectral IR-sounders including IRFS-2 Fourier spectrometer onboard "Meteor-M" N 2 have been analyzed [Uspensky and Rublev, 2014]. The Fast Radiative Transfer Model (FRTM) designed for the analysis and validation of the IR-sounder IRFS-2 has been developed jointly with Institute of Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Geophysics. Computational efficiency is estimated and the results of the verification of developed FRTM are presented. The construction of radiative models, which use the algorithm of the Monte Carlo method and applicable for the analysis and modeling of the data of IR sounders under conditions of cloudiness in the instrument field of view, is considered [Uspensky et al., 2014]. Numerical simulation of the technology for determining the data of temperature-humidity atmospheric sounding from IR and microwave measurements from Meteor-M has been performed in cooperation with SPbSU [Polyakov et al., 2013c]. For the preparation for interpreting new space experiments on the Russian "Meteor-M N 2 at St. Petersburg State University, algorithms and codes for retrieving the vertical profiles of temperature, humidity, ozone content, ocean and land temperature, cloud liquid water content, near-surface wind have been developed. Numerical experiments for analyzing the accuracy of the parameters retrieval from data of satellite IR Fourier-spectrometer IRFS-2 and microwave spectrometer MTVZA are carried out by means of various techniques of solving inverse problems (multiple linear regression, iterative method of optimal estimation (statistical regularization) and artificial neural networks) [Polyakov et al., 2013c, 2014b].

The description of the measuring complex onboard the Electro-L N 1 geostationary weather satellite is provided, and methodical questions of receiving the information products from data of the MSU-GS radiometer-imager are considered [Asmus et al., 2012]. The regression method for retrieving the ozone total content (OTC) from the MSU-GS has been proposed and tested on real satellite data. Validation of the OTC estimates is performed by the comparison with data of ground-based ozonometric network and independent OMI satellite estimates [Kramchaninova and Uspensky, 2013]. The multispectral satellite imaging system (MSIS) aboard the Meteor-M No. 1 spacecraft has surveyed the territory of Russia and neighboring countries for three years. The MSIS data, supplemented by synchronous navigational information, are automatically received, pipeline processed, archived, and cataloged at ground-based receiving stations in Moscow, Novosibirsk, and Khabarovsk. These data are used to solve a wide range of land-use, environmental, and emergency monitoring problems; assess ice situations in seas, rivers, and lakes; etc. [Avanesov et al., 2013].

Many studies have been devoted to retrieving the atmospheric and surface characteristics using data from different foreign satellites and devices (SEVIRI/METEOSAT-9, AVHRR NOAA, MetOp, SSM/I, Terra, Aqua, etc.) or to comparing retrieved results with data of independent measurements. The vertical profiles of the O3, CO, CO2 and CH4 concentrations measured onboard the Optik Tu-134 aircraft laboratory and retrieved from data obtained with an IASI (MetOp satellite) have been compared [Arshinov et al., 2014]. The improved techniques for the CO2 and CH4 retrieval from the AIRS and IASI data have been proposed. A comparison of the satellite data with quasi-synchronous aircraft observations was performed [Uspensky et al., 2011]. The tropospheric NO2 content over the Moscow region has been analyzed using OMI data in the period 20042009. Possibilities for diagnosing long-term changes in nitrogen oxide emissions in megalopolises are investigated using data from satellite measurements and the modeling of the tropospheric nitrogen dioxide content [Konovalov, 2011]. Using the data from MODIS, MOPITT, MLS, and OMI satellite instruments, the changes in aerosol optical characteristics and in contents of atmospheric trace gases (O3, NO2, CO, CH2O, SO2) and water vapor (H2O) during the prolonged atmospheric blocking event and wildfires in European Russia (ER) in the summer of 2010 have been analyzed. It is found that among burning products the greatest increase revealed aerosol optical depth (AOD) and CO [Sitnov, 2011a, 2011b], the spatial distribution of total column water vapor over ER during the block is found to be anomalous, with the water vapor excess in the north of ER and its deficit in the south of ER [Sitnov and Mokhov, 2013a]. It is also found that atmospheric moistening was accompanied by warming of the troposphere and cooling of the lower stratosphere [Sitnov and Mokhov, 2013a; Sitnov et al., 2014a]. Using MODIS (Aqua and Terra satellites) and in situ observations, a comparative analysis of two large-scale smoke events caused by the summer wildfires in European Russia (ER) in 2010 and Western Siberia (WS) in 2012 has been performed. Mean aerosol optical depths, radiative forcing effects at the top and the bottom of atmosphere and rates of radiative heating of the smoky atmosphere (AODs) are estimated for both events. Ground-based monitoring air pollution data in Moscow region were also examined [Gorchakov et al., 2014b]. Some aspects of European Russia smoke screening are discussed [Sitnov et al., 2012a, 2012b, 2013]. Preliminary results of Moscow region air pollution studies are outlined [Gorchakov et al., 2011; Golitsyn et al., 2011]. A comparative analysis of vertical temperature and humidity profiles, retrieved from MODIS and test radiosonde data from RAOB inventories has been performed. The analysis results gave a possibility to explore the applicability of meteorological satellite data to radiation calculations and solution of the problem of atmospheric correction of satellite infrared images of the Earths surface [Afonin, 2011]. Methods and technologies for the automatic classification of scanning radiometers data from polar-orbiting weather satellites to retrieve cloud and precipitation parameters have been developed [Volkova, 2012, 2013]. On the basis of the developed method for retrieving dynamic characteristics of the atmosphere using data geostationary meteorological satellites [Nerushev and Kramchaninova, 2011], the evolution of wind field characteristics under different atmospheric conditions at the cyclone stages has been studied. The construction of maps of atmospheric dynamic characteristics in the zone of the severe cyclone of the moderate latitudes allowed to revealing the peculiarities of these characteristics [Nerushev and Barkhatov, 2012]. The method for retrieving the rainfall characteristics from frontal cloudy systems has been developed [Nerushev et al., 2013]. Spatial distribution of jet flows in the satellite surveillance zones and the intra-annual variability of their characteristics in the upper troposphere of Northern and Southern hemispheres was studied by the automated method [Ivangorodsky and Nerushev, 2014]. The cycle of studies on developing methods of satellite diagnosis and forecasting of summer squalls and thunderstorms has been fulfilled [Bukharov, 2013].

Some studies devoted to the satellite monitoring of the Black Sea oil pollution [Lavrova and Mityagina, 2013], the total ice concentration [Alekseeva and Frolov, 2013] and blooms of coc-colithophore E. huxleyi in Arctic waters [Petrenko et al., 2013] have been also fulfilled.

Joint studies of Water Problems Institute RAS and SRB "Planeta" directed to using the remote sensing data on surface characteristics in the simulation of components of water and heat balances for a river headwater are carried on. Methods of the AVHRR/NOAA, MODIS/Terra, Aqua, SEVIRI/Meteosat satellite data processing, which provide the retrieval of vegetation characteristics, land-surface temperature, and precipitation, have been developed or refined. The techniques for the assimilation of satellite-based products in the model have been developed. Some major water regime characteristics have been generated such as soil water content, evapotranspiration, and others [Startseva et al., 2014]. In addition the model of the vertical heat-water transfer in the soil-vegetation-atmosphere system (SVAT) utilizing the satellite data on underlying surface and a number of meteorological characteristics has been improved. Using the SVAT model, calculations of the water regime of the vast agricultural areas are carried out [Gelfan et al., 2012].


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Gorchakova I.A., Mokhov I.I., 2012: The radiative and thermal effects of smoke aerosol over the region of Moscow during the summer Fires in 2010. Izv., Atm. Oceanic Physics, 48, 5, 496503.

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Bedareva T.V, Zhuravleva T.B., 2011: Retrieval of Aerosol Scattering Phase Function and Single Scattering Albedo According to Data of Radiation Measurements in Solar Almucantar: Numerical Simulation. Atmos. Ocean Opt., 24, 373384.

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Bedareva T.V., Sviridenkov M.A., Zhuravleva T.B., 2014: Retrieval of Dust Aerosol Optical and Microphysical Properties from Ground-Based Sun-Sky Radiometer Measurements in Approximation of Randomly Oriented Spheroids. J.Q.S.R.T., 146, 140157.

Bedareva T.V, Zhuravleva T.B., 2012: Estimation of Aerosol Absorption under Summer Conditions of Western Siberia from Sun Photometer Data. Atmos. Ocean Opt., 25, 216223.

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Frolkis V.A., A.M. Kokorin, 2014: The Influence of Various Variants of both Two-Phase Stratospheric Aerosol Particles and their Size Distribution on Optical Parameters and Radiative Forcing. Proceedings of MGO, 571, 88114 [in Russian].

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Yagovkina I.S., A.V. Polyakov, A.V. Poberovskii, Yu.M. Timofeev, 2011: Spectroscopic Measurements of Total CFC-11 Freon in the Atmosphere near St. Petersburg. Izv., Atm. Oceanic Physics, 47, 2, 186189.

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Semakin S.G., A.V. Poberovskii, and Yu.M. Timofeev, 2013: Ground-Based Spectroscopic Measurements of the Total Nitric Acid Content in the Atmosphere. Izv., Atm. Oceanic Physics, 49, 3, 294297.

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Polyakov A.V., Yu.M. Timofeyev, and K.A. Walker, 2013b: Comparison of the Satellite and Ground-Based Measurements of the Hydrogen Fluoride Content in the Atmosphere. Izv., Atm. Oceanic Physics, 49, 9, 10021005.

Gavrilov N.M., M.V. Makarova, A.V. Poberovskii, and Yu.M. Timofeyev, 2014a: Comparisons of CH4 Ground-Based FTIR Measurements near Saint Petersburg with GOSAT Observations. Atm. Meas. Tech., 7, 10031010.

Gavrilov N.M. and Yu.M. Timofeev, 2014: Comparisons of Satellite (GOSAT) and Ground-Based Spectroscopic Measurements of CO2 Content near St. Petersburg. Izv., Atm. Oceanic Physics, 50, 9, 910915.

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Virolainen Yana, Maxim Eremenko, Yury Timofeyev et al., 2014b: Measurements of Ozone Columns in Different Atmospheric Layers over St. Petersburg (Russia) Using Ground-Based FTIR Spectrometer in Comparison with IASI Satellite Data. Geoph. Res. Abst., 16, EGU2014-11353-5.

Virolainen Ya.A., Yu.M. Timofeyev, D.V. Ionov et al., 2012: The Ozone Vertical Structure Determining From Ground-Based Fourier Spectrometer Solar IR Radiation Measurements. Geoph. Res. Abst., 14, EGU2012-896.

Kostsov Vladimir, 2013: General approach to the formulation and solution of the multi-parameter inverse problems of atmospheric remote sensing. AIP Conference Proceedings, 1531, 240243.

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Pastel M.,  J.-P. Pommereau, , F. Goutail et al., 2014: Construction of Merged Satellite Total O3 and NO2 Time Series in the Tropics for Trend Studies and Evaluation by Comparison to NDACC SAOZ Measurements. Atm. Meas. Tech., 7, 33373354.

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Elansky N.F., I.I. Mokhov, I.B. Belikov, 2011: Gaseous Admixtures in the Atmosphere over Moscow during the 2010 Summer. Izv., Atm. Oceanic Physics, 47, 6, 672681.

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Kadygrov E.N., E.A.Miller, A.V. Troitsky, 2013b: Study of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Thermodynamics during Total Solar Eclipses. IEEE Trans. Rem. Sens., 51, 9, 46724677.

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Ivangorodsky, A.F. Nerushev, 2014: Characteristics of the Upper Tropospheric Jet Fluxes Inferred from the Data of European Geostationary Meteorological Satellites. Current Problems in Rem. Sens. Earth from Space, 11, 1, 4553 [in Russian].

Arshinov M.Yu., S.V. Afonin, B.D. Belan, et al., 2014: Comparison between Satellite Spectrometric and Aircraft Measurements of the Gaseous Composition of the Troposphere over Siberia during the Forest Fires of 2012. Izv., Atm. Oceanic Physics, 50, 9, 916928.

Lavrova O.Yu. and M.I. Mityagina, 2013: Satellite Monitoring of Oil Slicks on the Black Sea Surface. Izv., Atm. Oceanic Physics, 49, 9, 897912.

Alekseeva T.A. and S.V. Frolov, 2013: Comparative Analysis of Satellite and Shipborne Data on Ice Cover in the Russian Arctic Seas. Izv., Atm. Oceanic Physics, 49, 9, 879885.

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Afonin S.V., 2011: Applicability of Space-Derived Meteorological Data to Atmospheric Correction of Satellite Infrared Measurements. Atm. Oceanic Opt., 24, 1, 5663.

Startseva Zoya, Eugene Muzylev, Elena Volkova et al., 2014: Water and Heat Regimes Modelling for a Vast Territory Using Remote-Sensing Data. Int. J. Rem. Sensing, 35, 15, 57755799.

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Sitnov S.A., 2011a: Satellite Monitoring of Atmospheric Gaseous Species and Optical Characteristics of Atmospheric Aerosol over the European Part of Russia in AprilSeptember 2010. Dokl. Earth Sci.s, 437, part 1, 368373.

Sitnov S.A., 2011b: Aerosol Optical Thickness and the Total Carbon Monoxide Content over the European Russia Territory in the 2010 Summer Period of Mass Fires: Interrelation between the Variation in Pollutants and Meteorological Parameters. Izv., Atm. and Oceanic Physics, 47, 6, 714728.

Sitnov S.A., I.I. Mokhov, 2013a: Peculiarities of Water Vapor Distribution in the Atmosphere over the European part of Russia in Summer 2010. Dokl. Earth Sci., 448, Part 1, 8691.

Sitnov S.A., I.I. Mokhov, 2013b: Water-Vapor Content in the Atmosphere over European Russia during the Summer 2010 Fires. Izv., Atm. Oceanic Physics, 49, 4, 380394.

Sitnov S.A., I.I. Mokhov, A.R. Lupo, 2014: Evolution of Water Vapor Plume over Eastern Europe during Summer 2010 Atmospheric Blocking. Adv. Meteorology, 2014, Article ID 253953, 11 pages. DOI:10.1080/01431161.2014.945008.

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